The services of the Unit will be utilized in the detection of crime and criminals
Dogs have a keen sense of smell and are able to pick up both ground borne and air borne scents. However, in built up areas they may lose scent because of the over-lapping of scents and the availability of speedy means of transport like buses, trains, taxies, etc., which enable offenders to make a quick and easy get away. It is with the help of this sense of smell that dogs can follow up a scent to locate an individual or an object even if hidden.
If and when it is found necessary to use dogs for detection of crimes like murder, dacoity, robbery, burglary, etc., the time lag has to be curtailed to the minimum possible extent because their effectiveness depends upon the presence of the scent at the scene of offence and the longer the time lag lesser the chances of the dogs picking up the scents. There is also the fatigue factor affecting the dog as well as the handler which cannot be over-looked. Broadly speaking, scent, air-borne as well as ground borne, will not last for more than twelve hours unless the offender is hiding somewhere nearby.
Use of Dogs :- The main use of dogs can broadly be classified as under :-
(1) Guarding, (2) Patrolling, (3) Tracking, (4) Scent Identification, (5) Searching for Missing Persons, (6) Searching premises for locating hidden criminal, (7) escorting dangerous criminals, (8) Preventing a criminal or a suspect from escaping and (9) Seeking out an individual who may have hidden himself with the object of committing a crime late.
Selecting Cases for employing Dogs :- Whether the all important scent which is a must for employing dogs in crime work will remain long depends upon several factors, of which, the most important is the time factor. It is, therefore imperative that the investigating officer must decide whether any useful purpose will be served by employing dogs. In doing so, he will be guided by his own appreciation of the situation at the scene of crime. In doing so, he will keep in mind the following points :-
- The time which has elapsed since the commission of offence.
- Whether the culprit has left any of his personal belongings like a piece of cloth, handkerchief, chapal, shoes, etc., at the scene of offence.
- Whether the criminal has sufficiently handled any of the articles at the scene of offence from which the dog could get scent.
- Whether the locality is thickly populated or is an open place.
- Where possible, it should be ascertained as to how the criminal has left the scene, whether he has traversed along a cement or tarred road or along open place and also whether the area traversed was dry or moist.
Conditions necessary for ensuring the best use of dogs :- To ensure the best and the most effective use of Police Dogs, the following requirements must be met :-
- The handle must be a good Policeman and properly trained in the handling of his dog.
- The dog must be properly trained.
- All members of the force should have some knowledge of how dogs can best be used as aid to police work so that no opportunity is lost in enlisting their services whenever this is necessary.