Rights of Victims/Complainants of Crimes :

Whenever any Cognizable Offence (where a Police officer can arrest the offender without warrant) is committed -

  • The aggrieved person or any other person can file an FIR orally or in writing with the Officer-in-charge of a Police Station.
  • In case of refusal to register a cognizable offence, the complainant can send his complaint by post to the Superintendent of Police who can start the process of investigation.
  • A copy of the FIR is given free of cost to the informant.
  • After registration of FIR, investigation is taken up.
  • Thereafter findings are sent to the Court under section 173 Cr.PC and complainant is duly informed.
  • When adequate evidence comes on record, a chargesheet is submitted and the case is sent for trial.
  • When evidence is inadequate or the case turns out to be false or a mistake of fact, a final report is submitted to the court.
  • Where a final report is submitted in the case, the informant can represent his case before the Court which hears the person before accepting the Police report.
  • Section 167(1) Cr.PC prescribes that every investigation shall be completed without unnecessary delay though no time limit is fixed for completion of investigation.
  • A complainant or a victim, in case of a grievance that investigation has not been proper or speedy, can represent to the superior officers who can issue appropriate direction including direction for further investigation.
  • If a person is unable to go to a Police Station to lodge his complaint, he can send it by post.
    People can also inform Police Control Room about commission of a cognizable offence or its likelihood.

If a complaint discloses commission of a non-cognizable offence, Police cannot suo-moto proceed with investigation and only a competent Court can authorize an investigation.